The Latin phrase *multum in parvo* means “much in little”. It’s a good way of describing the construction of fractals, where the application of very simple rules can produce great complexity and beauty. For example, what could be simpler than dividing a square into smaller squares and discarding some of the smaller squares?

Yet repeated applications of divide-and-discard can produce complexity out of even a 2×2 square. Divide a square into four squares, discard one of the squares, then repeat with the smaller squares, like this:

Increase the sides of the square by a little and you increase the number of fractals by a lot. A 3×3 square yields these fractals:

And the 4×4 and 5×5 fractals yield more: